Saturday, October 31, 2020



It normally said that whenever anyone gets some theological doubts he should read the religious scripts which would, they say, enlighten them; give them the clarity and all that. But in my case things had so far gone the other way round. I had little doubts. Tried to get answers. People said read the bible. I obliged a little. But I also started not only reading but also analyzing. I went one other "wrong step" too! I started reading the history of religion(s) also. That almost put an end to all my questions. Got the enlightenment. Got my eyes fully opened. Finally, I came back to my earlier conclusion - religion(s) cannot stand against rationality.

Moreover, when we start knowing the religions and their origin and history (especially the Abrahamic religions) they simply lose their grounds to sensible questions. 

In Christianity this comes very much true. Its earlier period it was so competitive with so many different groups and Paul had been on the steering wheel in his hand and he manipulated the religion to his direction so well. What we have now as an institutional religion, we come to know, has come through so many trials and changes. Whether it was converting Jesus a god to the whole humankind or fixing the date for Christmas … all these were made by a group of men.

The following essay is one such thing. Judas, always considered as an obnoxious villain  changes to a different person who was so close with Jesus. This essay also mentions about the various groups in Christianity and how a stronger team writes the history of the religion. We are taught from childhood that the gospels are words of god. But in reality it is not so. Not even the names of the authors are true! They were written far later than the lifetime and death of Jesus. And they were written by somebody and named after some disciple later. It makes the statement - SUCCESSFUL MEN WRITE THE HISTORY - completely TRUE!


In the earliest period of Christianity, many gospels were written and there were many competing groups among them. The group headed by Irenaeus became the largest. In this group during the second and third centuries. There were martyrs like Justin Martyr, and Tertullian in this group. This group was known as Orthodox. When this group became dominant, a new Christian history was written. (History, as we know, is written always by the winners.) Only the gospels they selected became the approved canonical gospels. Old books when unearthed now show a different story proving that there were many groups in early period. Gospel of Judas is one such book that gives a very different content and it can even change it very much.


Judas is one of the most reviled men in history.  But was Judas only obeying his master's wishes when he betrayed Jesus with a kiss?

That's what a newly revealed ancient Christian text says.

After being lost for nearly 1,700 years, the Gospel of Judas was restored, authenticated, and translated. A leather-bound Coptic language papyrus document that surfaced during the 1970s, near Beni Masar, Egypt,  was named the Codex Tchacos and was first translated in the early 2000. The only copy of it known to exist is a Coptic language text that has been carbon dated to 280 AD, plus or minus 60 years. This research work on it was done by  Barabe and his colleagues for the National Geographic Society. Given that it includes late 2nd century theology, it is thought to have been composed in the 2nd century by Gnostic Christians. It asserts that the other disciples had not learned the true Gospel, which Jesus taught only to Judas Iscariot, the sole follower belonging to the "holy generation" among the disciples. The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel. The content consists of conversations between  Jesus  and Judas Iscariot.


Translated by

Rodolphe Kasser, Marvin Meyer, and Gregor Wurst,

in collaboration with François Gaudard




The secret account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot during three days before he celebrated Passover.

SCENE 1: Jesus dialogues with his disciples: The prayer of thanksgiving or the eucharist:

They said, “Master, you are […] the son of our god.” Jesus said to them, “How do you know me? Truly [I] say to you, no generation of the people that are among you will know me.” THE DISCIPLES BECOME ANGRY When his disciples heard this, they started getting angry and infuriated and began blaspheming against him in their hearts.(35)

But their (disciples) spirits did not dare to stand before [him], except for Judas Iscariot. He was able to stand before him, but he could not look him in the eyes, and he turned his face away.

Judas [said] to him, “I know who you are and where you have come from. You are from the immortal realm of Barbelo. And I am not worthy to utter the name of the one who has sent you."

Barbelo: Barbēlō (Greek) refers to the first emanation of God in several forms of Gnostic cosmogony. Barbēlō is often depicted as a supreme female principle.)

JESUS SPEAKS TO JUDAS PRIVATELY Knowing that Judas was reflecting upon something that was exalted, Jesus said to him, “Step away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom. It is possible for you to reach it, but you will grieve a great deal.(36)

SCENE 2: Jesus appears to the disciples again The next morning, after this happened, Jesus [appeared] to his disciples again. They said to him, “Master, where did you go and what did you do when you left us?” Jesus said to them, “I went to another great and holy generation.”

His disciples said to him, “Lord, what is the great generation that is superior to us and holier than us, that is not now in these realms?” When Jesus heard this, he laughed and said to them, “Why are you thinking in your hearts about the strong and holy generation? [37]

Truly [I] say to you, no one born [of] this aeon will see that [generation], and no host of angels of the stars will rule over that generation, and no person of mortal birth can associate with it, because that generation does not come from […] which has become […]. The generation of people among [you] is from the generation of humanity […] power, which [… the] other powers […] by [which] you rule.” When [his] disciples heard this, they each were troubled in spirit. They could not say a word. Another day Jesus came up to [them]. They said to [him], “Master, we have seen you in a [vision], for we have had great [dreams …] night […].” [He said], “Why have [you … when] have gone into hiding?” [38]


They [said, “We have seen] a great [house with a large] altar [in it, and] twelve men— they are the priests, we would say—and a name; and a crowd of people is waiting at that altar, [until] the priests [… and receive] the offerings. [But] we kept waiting.”


Jesus said to them, “Why are you troubled? Truly I say to you, all the priests who stand before that altar invoke my name. Again I say to you, my name has been written on this […] of the generations of the stars through the human generations. [And they] have planted trees without fruit, in my name, in a shameful manner.”(45)


Judas said to [him, “Rabb]i, what kind of fruit does this generation produce?” Jesus said, “The souls of every human generation will die. When these people, however, have completed the time of the kingdom and the spirit leaves them, their bodies will die but their souls will be alive, and they will be taken up.” Judas said, “And what will the rest of the human generations do?” Jesus said, “It is impossible [44] to sow seed on [rock] and harvest its fruit. [This] is also the way […] the [defiled] generation […] and corruptible Sophia […] the hand that has created mortal people, so that their souls go up to the eternal realms above. [Truly] I say to you, […] angel […] power will be able to see that […] these to whom […] holy generations […].” After Jesus said this, he departed.

SCENE 3: Judas recounts a vision and Jesus responds

Judas said, “Master, as you have listened to all of them, now also listen to me. For I have seen a great vision.” When Jesus heard this, he laughed and said to him, “You thirteenth spirit, why do you try so hard? But speak up, and I shall bear with you.” Judas said to him, “In the vision I saw myself as the twelve disciples were stoning me and [45] persecuting [me severely]. And I also came to the place where […] after you. I saw [a house …], and my eyes could not [comprehend] its size. Great people were surrounding it, and that house a roof of greenery, and in the middle of the house was [a crowd—two lines missing—], saying, ‘Master, take me in along with these people.’”

JUDAS ASKS ABOUT HIS OWN FATE Judas said, “Master, could it be that my seed is under the control of the rulers?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Come, that I [—two lines missing—], but that you will grieve much when you see the kingdom and all its generation.” When he heard this, Judas said to him, “What good is it that I have received it? For you have set me apart for that generation.” Jesus answered and said, “You will become the thirteenth, and you will be cursed by the other generations—and you will come to rule over them. In the last days they will curse your ascent [47] to the holy [generation].”

JESUS TEACHES JUDAS ABOUT COSMOLOGY: THE SPIRIT AND THE SELF-GENERATED Jesus said, “[Come], that I may teach you about [secrets] no person [has] ever seen. For there exists a great and boundless realm, whose extent no generation of angels has seen, [in which] there is [a] great invisible [Spirit],

THE COSMOS, CHAOS, AND THE UNDERWORLD “The multitude of those immortals is called the cosmos— that is, perdition—by the Father and the seventy-two luminaries who are with the Self-Generated and his seventytwo aeons. In him the first human appeared with his incorruptible powers. (51)


“Then Saklas said to his angels, ‘Let us create a human being after the likeness and after the image.’ They fashioned Adam and his wife Eve, who is called, in the cloud, Zoe. (53)


Judas said to Jesus, “Does the human spirit die?”

the Great One ordered Gabriel to grant spirits to the great generation with no ruler over it—that is, the spirit and the soul. Therefore, the [rest] of the souls [54] [—one line missing—].


They approached Judas and said to him, “What are you doing here? You are Jesus’ disciple.” Judas answered them as they wished. And he received some money and handed him over to them.




There were some comments from the translators. Some excerpts from their essays are given:






What I could see from this initial perusal of the text showed it was written in a Sahidic supralocal dilect of the Coptic language.(64)

The papyrus had become so weakened that it didn't tolerate the last touching, nearly all contact, as light as it was, threatened to leave it in dust. (65)

All the folios of the manuscript had, alas, been broken brutally at (about) two-thirds of their height by the deep fold previously mentioned. This rupture had divided every page into two parts of unequal area.(68)

In a satisfying manner, the "packet" of about thirty folios appeared to conclude with the final title - titles then normally appearing at the end - "GOSPEL OF JUDAS". (70)

…a priceless document that was nearly lost to us has at last been saved.(75)










The Dead Scrolls discovered in 1947 play a role in our collective popular imagination still today.

The scrolls do not contain any gospels about Jesus or indeed any reference at all to early Christianity.(77)

Writings of Nag Hammadi allegedly record teachings of Jesus himself, in words quite different from those of the New Testament.(78)

The Gospel of Judas is centered on a figure who is widely known, much maligned, and broadly speculated about.(79)

Judas is not the devil, corrupt, devil-inspired follower of Jesus; but instead he is Jesus' closest intimate and friend, who understood Jesus better than anyone else, who turned Jesus over to the authorities because Jesus wanted him to do so.

This gospel has a completely different understanding of God, the world, Christ, salvation and human existence.(80)

Most of the these alternate gospels were eventually destroyed as heretical - that is, for reaching the "wrong ideas" - or were lost in antiquity. Finding them and learning what they have to say has become the obsession of numerous scholars. (81)

This surviving copy was targeted by one of the great authors of the early Christian Church - Bishop Irenaeus, of modern France. In his work he named a number of heretical groups and attacked them. One of the false writings he names was Gospel of Judas. (82)



Irenaeus was one of our chief sources of information about the various Gnostic groups of the second century.(83)

For Gnostics, a person is saved not by having faith in Christ or by doing good works. Rather, a person is saved by knowing the truth- the truth about the world we live in, about who the true God is, and especially about who are ourselves are. (84)

Traditional Christianity has taught, of course, that our world is the good creation of the one true God. But that is not the view of Gnostics. How can anyone look at this world and call it good?(85)

.. the ultimate divine being is completely removed from the world. This divine being generated lots of offspring known as aeons who like him were spiritual entities.(85)

Irenaeus' five-volume refutation of Gnostics maligned their beliefs for being hopelessly contradictory, ridiculously detailed and contrary to the teachings of Jesus' own apostles.(88)



Mark and John don't say anything about Judas' demise, nor does the Gospel of Luke. But in the book of Acts - written by the author of Luke, as a kind of sequel to his gospel - we learn another version of Judas' death. Judas bursts forth in the midst and he spills his intestines on the ground, creating a bloody mess.(96)



Jesus reveals the secret to Judas Iscariot alone, his most intimate companion and the only one in this gospel who understands the real truth of Jesus.(97)

Jesus takes him aside, away from the ignorant others, to teach him "the mysteries of the kingdom". Judas alone will receive the secret knowledge necessary for salvation.(98)

Jesus says, "You will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me".(101)



The creator of the world is not the one true God; this world is an evil place to be escaped; Christ is not the son of the creator; salvation comes not through the death and resurrection of Jesus, but through the revelation of secret knowledge that he provides. (102)

There was theological wars of the second and third centuries, when different Christian groups maintained different systems of belief and doctrine. (103)



God of Jesus is not the creator god of the Jews. After their meals the disciples start thanks giving ; but Jesus begins to laugh. The disciples don’t see what is so funny.  For this Jesus replies that they don’t know what they are really doing. By giving thanks for their food, they are praising their god - that is, not the God of Jesus. Now the disciples are befuddled: "Master, you are … the son of our god". Jesus responds that no one of their "generation" will know who he really is.(104)

Jesus proceeds to upbraid them and speaks again about "your god who is within you". (Is it the concept of " AHAM BRAHMASMI"!!??)

Judas, the only one who truly understands, declares that Jesus has come from "the immortal realm of Barbelo," that is, from the realm of the true immortal living beings, not from the lower realm of the creator god of the Jews. (105) A number of Christian writings outside the new testament portray Jesus as “docetic” being - that is, as one who looked human only because it was an appearance.(107)


As Jesus says,

The souls of every human generation will die. When these people have completed the time of the kingdom and the spirit leaves them, their bodies will die but their souls will be alive and they will be taken up. (111)



 Why some few Christian writings made it into the Canon but most others like the Gospel of Judas were excluded? (116)

What happened to all the other books, the ones that told a different version of the story and so had been left out of the proto-orthodox canon?  Some of them were destroyed but most were simply last or crumbled with age.

Orthodox understanding of religion was not the only one in the second century of Christianity. (119) 










The existence of a gospel of Judas is first attested by the second century Bishop

Irenaeus of Lyon.(122)


According to Irenaeus this group of gnostics argues for reevaluation of the Jewish and orthodox Christian ideas of divine salvation.(123)


From the beginning of the third century on, this group of gnostics was called ‘Cainites’ (followers of Cain) by Christian writers such as Clement of Alexandria.(124)


In the newly discovered text there is no mention of Cain or the other antiheroes from the Jewish scriptures mentioned by Irenaeus. As a result we would have to assume the existence of more than one Gospel of Judas circulating within gnostic communities in antiquity.(127)



Judas Iscariot is portrayed as having a special knowledge about Jesus’ true identity. He  appears for the first time on page 35, where he is presented as the only disciple who is able to allow his inner spiritual personality to come to expression before Jesus.(128)


To Judas alone Jesus discloses that knowledge of the ‘great and boundless realm, whose extent no generation of Angels has seen.

At the end,  Judas is a perfect gnostic, worthy to be in a sense ‘transfigured’ by ascending into the luminous cloud where he will receive his vision of the divine.(129)


Judas’ task is to sacrifice the body of Jesus.(130)


Gospel of Judas is referred in the book of Acts from the New Testament.  On page 36, Jesus says to Judas: “For someone else will replace you in order that the 12 disciples may again come to completion with their God” - a clear allusion to the selection of Matthias to replace Judas in the circle of the twelve disciples. (Acts 1:15-26)








There is no historical evidence that any group of people within the early Christianity call themselves Cainites;  that name seems to be a nickname invented by heresy hunters.(137)


Irenaeus says  that in fact certain religious groups refer to themselves as “gnostics”. The knowledge claimed by these people is not worldly knowledge but mystical knowledge,  knowledge of God and self and the relationship between God and self. In the Gospel of Judas the word ‘gnosis’ is used twice.(50,54)


As Bart Ehrman also points out in his essay, the Gospel of Judas and Jesus himself in this Gospel thus proclaim salvation through knowledge, the self-knowledge of the divine light within.(139)


The phrase ‘the Immortal realm (or aeon) of Barbelo” is a familiar phrase in Sethian texts.


The origin of Barbelo and her name remains obscure, but it may come from the ineffable four letter name of god, YHWH or  YAHWEH - JEHOVAH - used in Jewish scriptures  and within Judaism. The Hebrew word for “four”, - arba -  may designate  the holy name and the name of Barbelo may derive  from Hebrew for an expression like “God”.(140)






 The transcendence of the Great One is emphasized in the Gospel of Judas.(144)


Autogenes, the self generated, is discussed in Gospel of Judas 47-50 when Jesus reveals the glorious manner in which the divine extends itself and comes to full expression.

Autogenes is a term commonly used in Sethian texts to characterize the offspring of Barbelo.(146)


 Sethian texts speak of divine wisdom personified as Sophia, whose shares traits with Eve and falls into an error that would have grave consequences.  

There is only a single reference to Sophia in a fragmentary part of the text where with little explanation she is called “corruptible Sophia”.(150)



The figure of Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve, is a significant figure in the Gospel of Judas.  The Gospel of Judas lists Seth (also called Christ) as an angelic ruler of the world.(157)



In this essay,  the Gospel of Judas appears to be an early Christian Sethian Gospel with teachings of Jesus presented to Judas Iscariot to announce a way of Salvation and Enlightenment based upon knowledge of self and the divine.(166)


Jesus says to Judas in Gospel of Judas 57, “Lift up your eyes and look at the cloud and the light within it and the stars surrounding it.  The star that leads the way is your star. (169)









Thursday, October 29, 2020

1129. DHARUMI'S PAGE - அசோகமித்திரன் - வண்ணங்கள்

Monday, October 26, 2020

1128. DHARUMI'S PAGE - புத்தம் புது காலை

Sunday, October 25, 2020


Saturday, October 24, 2020


Friday, October 23, 2020


Friday, October 16, 2020

1124. எம் ஜி ஆர் , ரஜினி ரசிகர்கள் மேல் அப்படி என்ன கோபமோ?





"குணா" விமர்சனப் புகழ் ஜார்ஜ் சாருக்கு எம் ஜி ஆர் , ரஜினி ரசிகர்கள் மேல் அப்படி என்ன கோபமோ?

தப்பா எடுத்துக்கல்லன்னா வரலாறை சொல்லுங்க கேப்போம்...😊😊😊  

இப்படி ஒரு கேள்வியை என்னைப் பார்த்துக் கேட்டுட்டார் தேவ் அவர்கள். பதில் சொல்லியாகணுமே… முயற்சி பண்றேன்.


                                           ஸ்டைலா இப்படி வாயை வச்சிருக்காரே ...

                                                                    அழகு / நடிப்பு ... இல்லீங்களா?

 எம்சிமார் சுத்தமா நடிக்கத் தெரியாது. நடிகனாக இருந்ததால் அரசியலில் கூட்டம் சேர்ந்தது; அரசியலில் இருந்ததால் நடிகனாகப் புகழ் வந்தது. (பெற்றால் தான் பிள்ளையான்னு ஒரே ஒரு படம் நடிச்சிருப்பார்.)ஆனா… டாப் நடிகர். எரியாதா? 

அடுத்து ரசினி… மொதல்ல ஒண்ணிரண்டு படம் நடிச்சாரு. அதுக்கு மேல அவரால முடியலையா .. இல்ல .. உங்களுக்கெல்லாம் சிகரெட்டைத் தூக்கிப் போட்டாதான் பிடிச்சுதான்னு தெரியலை. ஆனா டாப் நடிகர். எரியாதா?

ரசினி - ஒரே ஒரு.. வேணாம் … ரெண்டு படம் சொல்றேன். எசமான்னு ஒரு படம். மனைவி 9 மாசம் ஆச்சுன்னு தலையணையைக் கட்டி வச்சு, சும்மானாச்சுக்கும் சொல்றாங்க. நம்ம தலைக்கு அது கூட தெரியாதாம்! மென்பொருள் ஆளா அமெரிக்கா போய் softwareல காசு சேர்த்து வந்து இங்க அள்ளி அள்ளிக் கொட்டுறாராம். ஆனால் கல்யாணம் ஆகாத சின்னப்  பையலாகவே பொண்ணு பாத்துக்கிட்டு இருக்கார். இந்த ரெண்டு படத்தையும் வேற எந்த நடிகரை வைத்து எடுத்திருந்தாலும் இயக்குநர்களைக் கல்லை விட்டு எறிஞ்சிருப்பாங்க. கொஞ்சூண்டாவது லாஜிக் வேணாமா? ஆனா அது உங்க தல படமா… நீங்க விசிலடிக்கிறீங்க. எரியாதா? அதுவும் ஒங்க ஆளு படத்தில தான் லாஜிக் அப்டிங்கிறது சுத்தமா வழிச்சிப் போட்டாலும் வராது. பாட்சா படம் பார்த்து… வெற்றிப் படமாம். இவர் இன்னும் காதலர்… அந்தப் பக்கம் ரகுவரன் கிழடு.  ஆனால் விசில் … எரியாதா?

காமெடி கொஞ்சம் வரும். ஆனால் வடிவேலு நடிச்சும் அவரது காமெடியில் கட்டக் கடைசி இடத்தில் இருப்பது ஒங்க தல படம் தான். ரொம்ப ரொம்ப கண்றாவி. கண்றாவி என்பதை விட ‘அசிங்கமா’ இருக்கும் - சந்திரமுகி

மனோரமாவை மன்னிச்சது பெரிய மனசு. ரொம்ப appreciate  பண்ணினேன்.(பழைய கதை… உங்களுக்கெல்லாம் அது தெரியுமா?) 

அடுத்து விசய். மேல சொன்ன ரெண்டு பேர்மேல் உள்ள எரிச்சல் அந்த அளவு இந்த ஆளிடம் கிடையாது. ஆனா ஒரே மாதிரி, கொஞ்சம் கூட நடிக்காம (ஒரே ஒரு படம் - துள்ளாத மனம் துள்ளும் தவிர) கூட்டமான கூட்டம் சேர்க்கிறாரு. எதுக்குன்னு தெரியலை. எரியாதா? 

அதென்னமோ போங்க … நம்ம ஊர்ல இரண்டாவது இடத்தில இருக்கிற ஆளுக முதலிடத்திலிருக்கும் ஆளுகளை விட நல்லா பேரு வாங்குறாங்க. ஏங்க இப்படி இருக்கீங்க?  சிவாஜியை விட எம்சிஆருக்கு மருவாதை இருக்கிறதப் பார்த்தா எரியாதா? கமலை விட ரசினிக்கு மரியாதை. எரியாதா? (வி.சே.யை விட சி.கா.வுக்கு பெரிய கூட்டமில்லை. ஒருவேளை காலம் மாறுகிறதோ?)

அதென்னங்க நம்ம ஊரு மக்கள் இப்படி இருக்கீங்க. இன்னும் அந்த ஆளை இளம் ஹீரோவாக தலைமேல் தூக்கி வைத்து எப்படிக் கொண்டாட முடிகிறது. ஒரு சந்தேகமுங்க. எம்சிஆரை பெண்கள் ரொம்ப ரசிப்பாங்க. ‘என்ன கலரு’ அப்டிம்பாங்க. அடுத்து உண்மையோ பொய்யோ நல்ல மனுசன்னு அடுத்தவங்க காசில பெயர் வாங்கிட்டாரு. வள்ளல்னு பேரு. ஜானகி திருமணத்தைக்(!?) கூட மக்கள் கண்டுகொள்ளவில்லை. ஜெ கூட இருந்ததைக் கூட (!!??)யாரும் கண்டுக்கவே இல்லை. ஆனா ஒங்க தலை ஆரம்ப காலத்தில் ரொம்ப அடாவடித்தனம் .. அது இதுன்னு இருந்தார். ஆனால் மக்கள் யாரும் கண்டுக்கவே இல்லை. ஆச்சரியமாகவும் இருந்தது; அதிர்ச்சியாகவும் இருந்தது. 

ஆனால் உங்களை மாதிரி ஆட்கள் தான் முதலில் மாறணும்னு நினைக்கிறேன். நடிச்சா கை தட்டுங்க.. விசிலடிங்க. இப்போ எனக்கு வி.சே. பிடிக்கும்.  ஆனால் அதுக்காக அவர் நடிக்கிற எல்லா படத்துக்கும் நிச்சயமா விசிலடிக்கிறது கிடையாதுங்க. சில ஆட்களைப் பிடிக்கலாம். ஆனால் வெறியாகி இருக்கிறதைப் பார்த்தா … எரியுது! என்ன பண்றது? வயசானாலும் மாற மாட்டேங்குறீங்களே… இப்போ சிவாஜி படம் எல்லாத்தையும் பார்க்க முடிவதில்லை. காலமும் மாறி விட்டது. நடிப்பின் வகைமுறைகளும் மாறிப் போச்சு. நானும் மாறி விட்டேன். 

ஆனா ஒண்ணுங்க… என்ன சொன்னாலும் நீங்களும் மாறப்போவதுமில்லை. நானும் மாறப் போவதில்லை. எங்க வீட்லயும் ஒருத்தரு உண்டு...உங்கள் மாதிரி. அதை விட என் பேத்திகள் தமிழ் சீரியல் பார்ப்பதில்லை; சினிமாவும் செல்வதில்லை. ஆனால் விஜய் டான்செல்லாம் ரொம்ப பிடிக்குது. எனக்கு அப்படி ஒரு ஆச்சரியம்.

CHARISMA என்பார்கள். அது தானோ இதெல்லாம்??


இதையும் வாசியுங்கள்:   ஏப்.2006   நவ 2005










ஏசுவும் மகதலேனா மேரியும் திருமணம் செய்தது உண்மையா?


Christoph Markschies suggests that we have lost 85% of Christian literature from the first two centuries–and that includes only the literature we know about. Surely there must be even more, for the discovery of texts like the Gospel of Mary came as a complete surprise. We have to be careful that we don't suppose it is possible to reconstruct the whole of early Christian history and practice out of the few surviving texts that remain. Our picture will always be partial—not only because so much is lost, but because early Christian practices were so little tied to durable writing.

The Gospel of Mary  is found in the Berlin Gnostic Codex (Papyrus Berolinensis 8502). This very important and well-preserved codex was discovered in the late-nineteenth century somewhere near Akhmim in upper Egypt. It was purchased in Cairo in 1896 by a German scholar, Dr. Carl Reinhardt, and then taken to Berlin.

The codex (as these ancient books are called) was probably copied and bound in the late fourth or early fifth century. It contains Coptic translations of three very important early Christian Gnostic texts:  the Gospel of Mary, the Apocryphon of John, and the Sophia of Jesus Christ. The texts themselves date to the second century and were originally authored in Greek.

But more importantly, the codex preserves the most complete surviving fragment of the Gospel of Mary – and it is clear this named Mary is the person we call Mary of Magdala. Two other small fragments of the Gospel of Mary from separate Greek editions were later unearthed in archaeological excavations at Oxyrhynchus, Egypt. …..Finding three fragments of a text of this antiquity is extremely unusual, and it is thus evidenced that the Gospel of Mary  was well distributed in early Christian times and existed in both an original Greek and a Coptic language translation.

Unfortunately the surviving manuscript of the Gospel of Mary is missing pages 1 to 6 and pages 11 to 14 – pages that included sections of the text up to chapter 4, and portions of chapter 5 to 8.  The extant text of the Gospel of Mary, as found in the Berlin Gnostic Codex, is presented below. The manuscript text begins on page 7, in the middle of a passage.

The Gospel of Mary of Magdala:
Jesus and the First Woman Apostle

by Karen L. King

We do know that the fifth-century manuscript in which it was inscribed was purchased in Cairo by Carl Reinhardt and brought to Berlin in 1896. Two additional fragments in Greek have come to light in the twentieth century. Yet still no complete copy of the Gospel of Mary is known. Fewer than eight pages of the ancient papyrus text survive, which means that about half of the Gospel of Mary is lost to us, perhaps forever.

Yet these scant pages provide an intriguing glimpse into a kind of Christianity lost for almost fifteen hundred years.

it exposes the erroneous view that Mary of Magdala was a prostitute for what it is-a piece of theological fiction. 

The story of the Gospel of Mary is a simple one. Since the first six pages are lost, the gospel opens in the middle of a scene portraying a discussion between the Savior and his disciples set after the resurrection. The Savior is answering their questions about the end of the material world and the nature of sin. He teaches them that at present all things, whether material or spiritual, are interwoven with each other. In the end, that will not be so. Each nature will return to its own root, its own original state and destiny.

The Savior concludes this teaching with a warning against those who would delude the disciples into following some heroic leader or a set of rules and laws. Instead they are to seek the child of true Humanity within themselves and gain inward peace. After commissioning them to go forth and preach the gospel, the Savior departs.

But the disciples do not go out joyfully to preach the gospel; instead controversy erupts. All the disciples except Mary have failed to comprehend the Savior's teaching. Rather than seek peace within, they are distraught, frightened that if they follow his commission to preach the gospel, they might share his agonizing fate. Mary steps in and comforts them and, at Peter's, relates teaching unknown to them that she had received from the Savior in a vision. The Savior had explained to her the nature of prophecy and the rise of the soul to its final rest, describing how to win the battle against the wicked, illegitimate powers that seek to keep the soul entrapped in the world and ignorant of its true spiritual nature.

But as she finishes her account, two of the disciples quite unexpectedly challenge her. Andrew objects that her teaching is strange and he refuses to believe that it came from the Savior. Peter goes fur­ther, denying that Jesus would ever have given this kind of advanced teaching to a woman, or that Jesus could possibly have preferred her to them. Apparently when he asked her to speak, Peter had not expected such elevated teaching, and now he questions her character, implying that she has lied about having received special teaching in order to increase her stature among the disciples. Severely taken aback, Mary begins to cry at Peter's accusation. Levi comes quickly to her defense, pointing out to Peter that he is a notorious hothead and now he is treating Mary as though she were the enemy. We should be ashamed of ourselves, he admonishes them all; instead of arguing among ourselves, we should go out and preach the gospel as the Savior commanded us.

Disciples were offended by Jesus' apparent preference of a woman over them. 

In many respects incidents and personalities are the same as found in other gospels. Yet it is also clear that the story of the Gospel of Mary differs in significant respects.  For example, after Jesus commissions the disciples they do not go out joyfully to preach the gospel, as they do in Matthew; instead they weep, fearing for their lives. Some of the teachings also seem shocking coming from Jesus, especially his assertion that there is no such thing as sin. Modern read­ers may well find themselves sympathizing with Andrew's assessment that "these teachings are strange ideas."

It is important to remember, too, that these first Christians had no New Testament, no Nicene Creed or Apostles Creed, no commonly established church order or chain of authority, no church buildings, and indeed no single understanding of Jesus. All of the elements we might consider to be essential to define Christianity did not yet exist. Far from being starting points, the Nicene creed and the New Testament were the end products of these debates and disputes; they represent the distillation of experience and experimentation—and not a small amount of strife and struggle.

All early Christian literature bears traces of these controversies. … whether the resurrection was physical or spiritual were stimulating theological conversations and causing rifts within and among Christian groups.

History, as we know, is written by the winners. 

Much of the Gospel of Philip is dedicated to a discussion of marriage as a sacred mystery, and two passages directly refer to Mary Magdalene and her close relationship with Jesus:

There were three who always walked with the Lord: Mary, his mother, and her sister, and Magdalene, the one who was called his companion. His sister and his mother and his companion were each a Mary.   In different places in the Gospel of Philip, Mary Magdalene is called Jesus's companion, partner or consort, using Coptic variants of the word koinônos (κοινωνός), of Greek origin, or the word hôtre, of Egyptian origin.

In the Bible, koinônos is sometimes used to refer to a spouse (Malachi 2:14; cf. 3 Maccabees 4:6), but is also used to refer to a "companion" in faith (Philemon 17), a co-worker in proclaiming the Gospel (2 Corinthians 8:23), or a business associate     

The other passage, purportedly referring to Jesus kissing Mary Magdalene, is incomplete because of damage to the original manuscript. Several words are missing.

 Most notably there is a hole in the manuscript after the phrase "and used to kiss her [often] on her...." But the passage appears to describe Jesus kissing Magdalene.

As for Wisdom who is called "the barren", she is the mother [of the] angels. And the companion of the [...] Mary Magdalene. [... loved] her more than [all] the disciples [and used to] kiss her [often] on her [...]. The rest of [the disciples...] They said to him, "Why do you love her more than all of us?" The Savior answered and said to them, "Why do I not love you like her? When a blind man and one who sees are both together in the darkness, they are no different from one another. When the light comes, then he who sees will see the light, and he who is blind will remain in darkness.

The Gospel of Philip is the document responsible for popularizing the idea of a marriage between Jesus and Mary Magdalene.


Dan Brown's Da Vinci Code is not completely an imaginative story. Probably it springs from the verses we find in gospel of Philip, " In different places in the Gospel of Philip, Mary Magdalene is called Jesus's companion, partner or consort" and " And the companion of the [...] Mary Magdalene. [... loved] her more than [all] the disciples [and used to] kiss her [often] on her [...]".

There is one another view about the 'hidden life' of Jesus. In those days, any young man remaining a bachelor till the age of 30 was very rare and unusual. These could have made the author to fabricate a story where Mary of Magdala becomes the loving wife of Jesus. Further, Peter and his fellow disciples showed great envy and jealousy with Mary. These could have been the point of germination for Brown's story. Of course Gnostic Gospels of Elaine Pagel and The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail of Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln should have given the supporting materials for Brown's novel -  for the latter it was a five-year "labour of love" in researching their book. The Holy Blood And The Holy Grail, itself a bestseller at the time, purports to be a factual history theorising that Jesus and Mary Magdalene married and had a child, and that the bloodline continues to this day, with a secret society protecting their heirs against the Catholic church. The same theme is there in Brown's novel which became a best seller - 40m copies worldwide - and also earned money for the film with the same title. Brown had to face a case of plagiarism since he used the research materials of co-authors of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail.